1. The choice of location cultivation

Coast is the lowest area of a watershed. As a result, the quality of fresh water in downstream areas or at the location of ponds to be vulnerable to negative influences from upstream areas, such as sediment deposition, shifting pesticides, and industrial pollutants or pollutant household. In other words, no good water management in upstream areas may have a negative impact on downstream areas. This issue shows that the management of coastal areas can not be divorced from management of upstream areas. Therefore, cultivation of tiger shrimp pond development should be supported by the following requirements:

- Embankment constructed outside densely populated and industrial areas.
- Location of ponds rather than nature reserve forest area, forest tours, and production forests.
- Pond has adequate water resources, both quantitatively and qualitatively.
- Pond has qualified irrigation channels so that water is available on a regular basis, adequate, and secure.
- Sources of fresh water are not derived from ground water (drilled wells) due to the use of ground water in the long term can result in losses, namely the occurrence instrusi sea water (sea water infiltration into the fresh waters) that cause a decrease in surface soil.

2. Holding elections
Selected female parent must have the conditions as
- Weighing more than 50 grams.
- High content of eggs.
- It's cooked eggs (see the gray on the back).
- In a normal body, not disabled.
- Clean from dirt and parasites.

While the male parent requirements are as follows:
- Weighing more than 40 grams.
- Legs second road terlau not large.
- Not aggressive.
- In a normal body, not disabled.
- Clean from dirt and parasites.

3. Main feed
Tiger prawns are nocturnal, meaning active and active foraging at night or in dark atmosphere. Conversely, decreases in daytime activity and more immersed himself in the mud or sand. Shrimps food varies, both in types and composition, depending on age. However, most shrimp are carnivores (animal eaters). Diet includes small animals, such as invertebrate (no vertebrate animals) of water, small shrimp, clams (bivalvae), and small fish.

Shrimp are farmed in ponds can be given a pellet. Parent shrimp require natural foods that have a high cholesterol content derived from shellfish and other crustaceans (crabs). This type of food needed to accelerate the process of egg maturation.

4. Spawning techniques
In nature, young shrimps are found in brackish waters with low salinity, such as in the estuary of the river where a meeting between seawater and freshwater. After sexual maturity, large shrimp would go deep-sea waters clear and calm water conditions and makes the place to breed.

Such conditions are also necessary if the tiger prawns cultivated outside their natural habitat, eg in the hatchery (hatchery) tiger prawns. Tiger prawn spawning actually not much different from the spawning fish.

Sex tiger prawns will be cooked at the age of 1.5 years and are ready to do his duty to reproduce. At that time, his weight reached 90-120 g / fish.

Mating tiger prawns are generally held at night. There is a tendency, when the full moon occurs on a mass spawning tiger prawns which have matured genitals.

Spawning occurs when males release sperm shrimp from the male genitalia (petasma) and then enter them into the genitals (telichum) female shrimps. After the occurrence of direct contact, the female parent will nengeluarkan egg so that fertilization occurs. This fertilized egg will float in the bottom of the deep ocean waters. Furthermore, eggs that have hatched into larvae that will be planktonic (drifting) and will rise to the surface water.

In a single spawning season, a female produces as many eggs 200000-500000 grains. After the eggs hatch, the larvae of tiger shrimp changing its form several times like these:
- Period or the period of the first nauplius larvae shrimp. It lived during the period 46-50 hours and the larvae suffered six times the turnover of skin.

- Zoea period or second period. This period takes about 96-120 hours at which time the larvae have three times the replacement skin.
- Period Mysis or third period. This period takes 96-120 hours and the larvae suffered as much as three times the turnover of skin.
- The period of post larvae (PL) or the fourth period. Tiger prawns reached sub-post larvae stage until 20 levels. When we reach this period, shrimp prefers brackish waters with salinity of 25-35 ppt.
- Period of juvenile or fifth period. Juvenil is the youth who love the shrimp waters with salinity 20-25 ppt. Period of adult shrimp. This period lasted after the juvenile period until the shrimp are ready to breed. Once matured genitals and mature gonads, adult prawns will be back into the sea to spawning. Adult shrimp like brackish waters with salinity 15-20 ppt.

source: Bambang Sunarno, IN AzNa Books, 2010

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