Anatomy and Biology of Fish

Anatomy and Biology of Fish

Invertebrates (including vertebrates), aquatic habitat, breathing with gills (especially), moving and balancing his body with fins, is poikilotermal.

Varies considerably, but the morphology is essentially composed of the head, body, and tail of the image 1, image 2.a general form: bilateral symmetry, and the image 2.b nonsimetri

There are 10 systems in the body's anatomy of fish:
1. The system covers the body (skin): among other scales, the poison glands, mucous glands, and coloring sources.
2. Muscle system (tendon): - drive the body, fins, gills
- Electric organ
3. Order system (bones): the muscles attach; protecting internal organs and enforcement bodies
4. Respiratory system (respiration): organs, especially gills; no additional organs
5. Circulatory system (circulation): - organ heart and blood cells
- Passing O2, nutrients, etc.
6. Digestive System: gastrointestinal organs of the mouth - anal
7. Nervous system: brain organs and nerves edge
8. Hormone systems: hormonal glands; for growth, reproduction, etc.
9. Excretory System and Osmoregulation: organs, especially kidneys
10. Reproductive system and embryology: organs of male and female gonads
There is a very close relationship between the reply to the 10 anatomical systems, such as:
- Tendon system and the framework of the system affects the body shape to determine how the movement of
- Respiratory system and circulatory O2 from water captured by the blood, CO2 exchanged dg carried through the body via the blood

The skin consists of 2 layers:
- Epidermis; outer, thin, always changing
- Dermis; in the epidermis, thicker, where the formation of scales
- The function of the skin:
- 1. wrapper / closing body
2. The first defense against disease and parasites
3. adjustments to environmental conditions
4. excretion tool - Osmoregulation
5. additional respirator
Organs contained in the skin:

- Scales, including skut and kil
- Gland secretions
- Poison glands
- Source of coloring
- Light organs of fish in the sea
These types of scales: cycloid, ktenoid, plakoid, ganoids, cesmoid.
Mucus glands: mucus
mucus functions:
1. prevent friction with the water body, accelerating the movement
2. keep out of the water through the skin
3. prevent infection
4. closed wound
5. prevents dryness (the lung fish)
6. build a nest (in particular fish species)
Poison glands: on certain species modification of mucus glands, located in different fins, its function in self-defense, attack, and find food.
Source of coloring on the fish: the function of camouflage coloring, hiding, notification, avoidance of predators, waiting for prey, communication with the opposite sex.

- Striped
- Plain
- Heart
- In the excitatory nerve
- Not under the excitatory nerve
Its function: to move the body, fins, oral cavity, and internal organs.
In a modification of fish tendon, the electric organ of ± 250 species of fish, especially marine fish, in the tropics and sub-tropics. Function for self-defense (electric voltage generated yg high) and to find food (low voltage).

Function order:
1. enforcement bodies
2. where the muscles attach
3. protecting the internal organs
4. formed erythrocytes

Based on the structure, the framework has 2 kinds of fish:
a. Framework of cartilage, the Elasmobranchii fish (shark, etc.)
b. Framework of bone is, in Teleostei fish (usually the fish)
Based on its location:
- Skull
- Backbone
- Rib
- Bone framework advocates called visceral gills
- Bone called the framework advocates APPENDICULAR fin
The bones of the gill cover:
- Operculum
- Sub operculum - under
- Pre operculum - in front of
- Interculum - among

4. Digestive System
Definition: Digestion is a process of simplification melaului food physical and chemical means, so that the juices of foods that are easily absorbed in the intestine, then distributed to all organs of the body through the circulatory system.
Organs: gastrointestinal tract consists of (from front / rear toward the anterior / posterior), respectively: the mouth / stomach cavity of the heart the mouth of the esophagus, bile, pancreas (pylorus and pyloric saeka) intestine
Additional organs: liver gland, bile glands, and pancreas glands
Complementary organs: whiskers, teeth, gills filter.
According to the type of food, fish belonging to a carnivore (eat other fish, crabs, insects, etc.), herbivor (eat plankton, water plants, etc.), and omnivor (mixed meal).
Kind of food do you eat fish and can be expected from:
- Mouth shape, mouth position
- Types of teeth: canin, incisor, etc.
- The bones of the gill filters: meetings, long, smooth, etc.
- Comparison between intestinal length with body length
For the effectiveness of the digestive system, there are modifications in the stomach (eg Belanak) and the intestines (eg the shark).
By knowing the nature and type of food do you eat, can be applied to the cultivation of fish.

5. CIRCULATION SYSTEM (circulation)
Definition: circulatory system is a system that functions to transport and distribute water to O2 from body cells in need, also transporting enzymes, nutrients, salts, hormones, and anti-body as well as transport of CO2 from the intestines, lymph - gland, gills, and so on, out of the body.
Organs: heart, arteries (aorta, arteries) and veins (veins), and blood capillaries. Materials circulated: blood (blood plasma and blood drops)
The heart of fish:
- Function: pumping blood throughout the body. Different fish heart with other animals have a heart pacemaker allows the heart yg continues to beat even though the brain is damaged
- The parts of the heart:
• Atrium - thin-walled
• Ventrikal - thick-walled, as the blood pumping
• Bulbus arteriosus
Before the atrium, there is sinus venosus (SV) blood collecting high-yield CO2, derived from certain organs. Blood from the SV into the atrium through the valve sinuautrial, blood from the atrium into the ventricle through the atrioventricular valve. Of ventricular blood pressure with pump power to him, heading toward the aorta ventralis, toward the gills. Exchange occurs in the gills of O2 with CO2 (respiratory system) and so the blood with a high O2 content distributed to the head area, to the dorsal, the ventral, and tail after re-distribute nutrients to the heart, etc. and so on.

Definition: Breathing: the exchange of CO2 (the remains of the body's metabolic processes must be disposed reply) with O2 (derived from water, the body needs for metabolic processes, etc.).
Respiratory organs:
- Especially gill lies? take O2 from the water
- Additional organs lung, maze, etc take O2 from the air;
skin and yolk sac in embryos and larvae
Gills, its parts:
- Gill arch bone
- Bone gill filters
- Leaves the gills
Function gill parts:
1. Gill arch bone as a bone filter melakeatnya gills and gill leaves, has a lot of blood channels and nerve channels
2. Bone filter gills, the digestive system function in order to rule out food organisms through the gills
3. Leaf gills, functioning as the respiratory system and blood circulation, where the exchange of O2 with CO2 gas.
Respiratory mechanisms:
Exchange of CO2 and O2 by diffusion occurs when the water from the habitat through the mouth, pushed toward the gills. O2 is much contained in the water will be bound by blood hemoglobin, while the CO2 contained in the blood will be released into the waters. Had a lot of blood containing O2 and then circulated back to all organs and so on.
Matters relating dg respiratory system:
1. Water should contain enough O2
2. When the water is less O2, the fish will a.l:
a. toward the surface of the fish traders
b. to the entry of water
c. toward the water streamy
3. Leaves the gills should be in a state of moist
Factors affecting fish needs to O2:
1. size and age (standia live): small fish need O2>>
2. fish activity: the active swimming to O2>>
3. Sex: female fish require O2>>
4. Stadia reproduction

Both these systems can be said as the coordination system to anticipate changes in environmental conditions and changes in life status (reproduction, etc.). Environmental changes shall be notified to the nervous system (central nervous, etc.), nerve will stimulate the endocrine glands to release hormones that required hormone delivered to target organs and metabolic activity will stimulate al networks for mobile.
The nervous system consists of:
- Cerebro spinal system:
• central nervous system: brain and spine
• Peripheral nervous system
- An autonomous system: sympathetic and parasimpati
- Special organs: nose, ears, eyes, LL
Privileges nervous system in fish: the nervous system on detecting LL environmental conditions (pH, temperature, etc.) because it contains the ends of nerve cells and blood cells.

Hormone System: Hormones produced by glands al hormone growth hormone, reproductive hormones, hormone excretion & Osmoregulation.
According to the results of hormonal glands:
- Endo hormones: what works in the body, such as hormones in the
- Ekto hormone: who works outside the body, such as the phenomenon: the other sex stimulate closer to spawn.

9. SYSTEM Ekskresi dan Osmoregulasi
Excretion system: exhaust system metabolism process (in the form of gases, liquids, and solids) through the skin, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract).
Osmoregulation System: setting systems balance the osmotic pressure of body fluids (water and blood) with the osmotic pressure of habitat (aquatic).
Organs of excretion system: skin, gastrointestinal tract, and kidney.
Organs Osmoregulation system: skin, kidney, gills, mouth a thin layer.
Kidneys: teletak on the abdomen, outside peritonium, under the spine and the dorsal aorta, as many as one pair, red, elongated.
Kidney Function:
1. filter out the remnants of the metabolic processes for disposal, substances that the body needs more distributed through the blood
2. manage consistency of urine thrown to maintain osmotic balance of body fluids
Osmotic pressure of body fluids vary between bony fish properly (Teleostei) who live in the sea with living in fresh waters, as well as fish, cartilaginous fishes (Elasmobranchii), so the structure and number of kidneys are also different, as well as the system osmoregulasinya .

Definition: reproductive system is a system to maintain / preserve the species by producing fertile offspring. Embryology is a sequence of zygot development process (the fertilized egg by sperm cells) to become children of fish and so on.
Reproductive organs:
Sex organs (gonads) produce sex cells (gametes)
4. Male gonads: the testes, usually a pair, left and right to produce spermatozoa
5. The female gonads: ovaries / ovaries to produce eggs
Type of reproduction:
Based on the sex organs:
1. Bisexual (female individuals separately from individual males) 2 types
2. Hermaphrodites (sex cells of male and female found in one individual)
3 kinds
3. Parthenogenesis and ginogenesis
Based on the process of egg fertilization by spermatozoa:
1. External (ovivar): fertilized outside the female body, the development of embryos outside the female body, the number of eggs sd hundreds of thousands
2. Internal
a. vivipar: fertilization in the female body, embryos obtain nutrients from the mother until they hatch
b. ovovivipar: embryo get nutrients from the yolk
need organ dealers spermatozoa:
- Gonopodium (thousand fish)
- Clasper (shark)

Based on the protection of the egg parent / child:
1. without protection:
- Egg lots (hundreds of thousands), small tuna, catfish, milkfish
- Spawning in the open

2. nesting:
- Without waiting for the parent
- Nest of leaves, wood, sand
3. in specific locations, without the protection of the parent
- On the rocks, submerged at the bottom
- At the water plant
- Bivalva shells placed on life
- Placed in the sand
4. parent protection outside the body
- Foam / bubble
- Wood / leaf
- Hole / nest
5. parent protection in the body
- In the mouth
- In the hollow at the head
- In the "uterus"
Sex characteristics
1. Primary (gonadal and channels directly involved in the process of reproduction)
- Male: testes with channel organ vas deferens
- Females: ovaries with channel organ oviduct
only be known after surgery
2. Secondary (visible from the outside, not directly involved in reproduction)
- Shape / size (dimorphism)
body, head, size of the fin, the genital papillae, ovopositor
- Color (dikromatisme)
Male: bright, colorful
females: simple, only one color
- Behavior
male: aggressive, agile, making a nest
females: calm, waiting for the nest is complete


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